Skeletonized Leaves? Rosebuds with Chewed Petals? = Japanese Beetles (Popillia japonica Newman, 1841)

These beautiful creatures have metallic green bodies with copper colored wings. They are 3/8 inch long and 1/4 inch wide. Japanese beetles are quite unique!

beetle - Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica) [MO 06]

It is amazing the damage these imported invaders can do!

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This is damage from one or two beetles. Imagine what a few dozen can do!

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Japanese Beetles (Popillia japonica Newman, 1841) came to our shores in 1912 on Japanese iris.

Stages of development are as follows:

  • Egg
  • Larvae (white grub)
  • Pupae (grub transforms into a cream colored/reddish brown cocoon)
  • Adult beetle emerge from soil May through June. It is a voracious eater for 30 to 50 days.
    • Once emerged it searches for food sources.
    • A pheromone (a scent produced by Japanese beetles to attract other Japanese beetles) is sent out to help other Japanese beetles find the food source.
    • Mating is soon to occur.
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    • Females feed for a few days on a plant food source and burrow 3 inches into the soil to lay eggs.
  • Once the eggs are laid the females emerge again to feed, mate and lay eggs again.
    • This cycle is repeated until their season is over, laying upwards to 40 to 60 eggs.
  • Eggs develop depending on soil temperature. The warmer the soil the quicker larval development.
  • Once they are larvae, they move upwards in the soil to feed on organic matter and roots.
  • Soil cooling moves the larvae (grubs) deeper in the soil for winter.
  • Soil warming moves the grubs upwards in the soil where they pupate and transform into an adult Japanese beetles and their life cycle begins again.

japanese beetle life cycle

The most effective natural control of Japanese beetles is daily, hand picking early in the morning as the beetles are lethargic.

  • Your arsenal of weaponry includes a bucket, soapy water and vigilant monitoring daily!
    • Early detection of the scout Japanese beetles is key to this strategy! This will reduce the following years population!!!
  • Place the bucket under the infested plant. Shake the plant and the beetles will fall into the soapy water.
    • Hand pick any beetles not falling into the bucket of soapy water.
  • This action reduces the pheremones of the exploratory first wave of Japanese beetles. This must be done daily!!
  • Leave the beetles to die and decompose in the bucket of soapy water. The odor of dying and decomposing beetles in the soapy water will repel/deter additional beetles from invading your area. (Many thanks to The Herb Gardener for this insight)
  • Place the bucket(s) near areas of previous Japanese beetle attack.
  • Insecticidal soap applied directly to the beetle will cause its demise.
  • Lemon dish soap sprayed directly on the beetle is another effective way to kill these pests!

Prevention: Kill grubs in the soil which turn into the Japanese beetle.

  • Milky Spore Disease (Bacillus popillae) will kill grubs but will take up to a year to inoculate the soil. This inoculation will last up to 10 years in the areas of heavy, consistent infestations.
    • Milky Spore when ingested in the grubs gut germinate, enter the blood and multiply.
    • The build up of spores causes the grub to have a milky white appearance.
    • Grubs continue to ingest the spore, become infected and die, each releasing 1 – 2 billion spores back into the soil.
      • Apply as labeled. May be purchased through biological mail order catalogs.
  • Beneficial nematodes actively seek out grubs in the soil.
    • The nematodes penetrate the grub releasing a bacteria.
      • This bacteria produces quickly feeding on the tissue of the grub.
      • The nematodes feed on the bacteria and continues their life cycle. They reproduce, release bacteria and kill the grubs.
      • Apply as labeled. May be purchased through biological mail order catalogs.

Both of the above methods are encouraged by the USDA and several well known universities as a safe and effective means to control Japanese beetles. These biological controls are species specific!! There are no other creatures affected by these methods.

Just remember you may have great prevention measures but your neighbors may not. Japanese beetles are with us for short 30 -50 day window. Killing them early may reduce the populations in your immediate area!

Birds are another way to deal with these nasty pests. They eat both the beetles and their grubs.

  • Bobwhite
  • Eastern Kingbird
  • Crows
  • Eastern Starling (I knew there must be something good about these birds)
  • Red-winged Blackbirds
  • Catbirds
  • Song Sparrows
  • Robins
  • Grackles (Again, I knew there must be something good about these birds!)

Sanitation is a wonderful way to rid your self of these pests. Clean up all debris around their favored plants. Till in the fall to expose the grubs for birds and other creatures to consume. Till again in the spring to again expose the pupae and emerging adult beetles.

Be diligent and decrease their surplus population!

Papa

Got Squash Bugs? Use Trap Crops!

Ugh, here we go again. Those nasty squash bugs are back! I really wanted to grow zucchini and yellow crookneck. Why waste my time! I hear this over and over again.

Now, there is a solution. Trap Crops!

  • Plants that are planted next to a squash crop to attract pests as either a food source (pollen/nectar) or an egg/larval site.
  • Attract pests to the border areas, where they can be killed. Pests on the unsprayed crop will be reduced.
  • Exploiting the squash bugs special appetite.
  • Intercepting the pest from the edges.
  • Check trap crop three (3) times per week.

Plant Red Kuri squash, Blue Hubbard Squash and Buttercup squash (as a trap crop) three (3) weeks prior to planting summer squash, winter squash, cucumber, cantaloupe and watermelon. The trap crop should be seeded in pots for transplanting, prior to direct seeding squash, cucumber and melons. Monitor for squash bugs to determine if treatment is needed on the trap crop.

Plant Red Kuri or Blue Hubbard or Buttercup squash transplants either surrounding, adjacent, at the four corners or in containers next to the crop.

red kuri blue hubbard

buttercupTrap Crop illustration

Monitor for squash bugs.

squash bug eggs nymphsquash bug nymph

Squash bug adult

Spot spray the squash bugs on the trap crop with a*pyrethrin insecticide. It may be necessary to spray the entire trap crop when the population threshold is exceeded. In other words, the squash bugs have infested the entire trap crop with eggs, larvae and adults.

*Pyrethrin insecticides – Evergreen Pyrethrum Concentrate, *OMRI Listed

PyGanic® Crop Protection EC 5.0 II, *OMRI Listed

* OMRI Listed: The Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) is a national nonprofit organization that determines which input products are allowed for use in organic production and processing. OMRI Listed—or approved—products may be used on operations that are certified organic under the USDA National Organic Program.

Caution – You must read the label!! The label is the law!! Pyrethrins will instantly kill any insect that is sprayed. That includes beneficial insects (honey bees, bumble bees, lady bugs, parasitic wasps, etc.). Be very careful!! Remember, squash crops, cucumbers, and melons are dependent upon pollinators to produce fruit.

When you follow these steps you will enjoy a fruitful harvest. Let me know of your success!

Papa

You may purchase the above varieties of squash at Baker Creek Heirloom Seed Company by clicking on the links below.

http://www.rareseeds.com/red-kuri-squa-hokkaido-/

http://www.rareseeds.com/blue-hubbard-squash/

http://www.rareseeds.com/buttercup-squ/

What do I do with the worms on my Korean red eggplant?

What shall I do about inch worms of the tiniest size eating my Korean red eggplant ? There doing quite a job at eating big holes? Thanks Art

Pandora

Pandora,

Visit your local garden center and purchase Dipel or Thuricide.

DiPel® is a biological insecticide containing the naturally occurring microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki(Btk) DiPel is more specific in its spectrum of insect toxicity against caterpillars.

Thuricide BT Caterpillar Control concentrate is used by organic gardeners and is made from bacteria that is toxic to listed pests. Safe to use on all plants, vegetables and edible crops. Thuricide is a biological insecticide with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for use on fruits, vegetables, shade trees, and ornamental plants to treat a variety of leaf-feeding worms. Pests treated include bagworms, tent caterpillars, gypsy moths, cabbage loopers, and tomato hornworms .

Follow the label instructions and apply with a sprayer. The Bt spores  maximize efficacy against lepidopteran pests.

Days to Harvest: There are no restrictions on applying DiPel or Thuricide up to the time of harvest.  DiPel or Thuricide  may be used for any labeled pest and  an insecticide for use against listed caterpillars (larvae) of  lepidopterous insects. Close scouting and early attention to infestations is highly recommended. Larva must eat deposits of DiPel or Thuricide to be affected.   • Treat when larvae are young (early instars) before the crop is damaged. • Larvae must be actively feeding on treated, exposed plant surfaces. • Thorough spray coverage is needed to provide a uniform deposit of DiPel or Thuricide at the site of larval feeding. Use overhead spraying to obtain good spray coverage on both sides of foliage. Use sufficient spray volume to insure uniform deposition on all plant surfaces. • Under heavy pest population pressure, use the higher label rates, shorten the spray interval, and/or raise spray volume to improve spray coverage. • Repeat applications at an interval sufficient to maintain control, usually 3 to 14 days depending on plant growth rate, moth activity, rainfall after treating, and other factors. If attempting to control a pest with a single spray, make the treatment when egg hatch is essentially complete, but before crop damage occurs. • A spreader-sticker which has been approved for use on growing and harvested crops should be added for hard-to-wet crops such as cabbage, or to improve weather-fastness of the spray deposits.

Let me know how this works for your eggplant. Watch for butterfly and moth activity as this will help you monitor the impact on your eggplant.

Art