Tater Update Three!!!

The potatoes are growing very well! The plants are starting to get flowers! The extra drainage is paying off, despite the heavy rains.

So far no sign of Potato Beetles. Plus, I’m on the look out for fungus!

The next step is to feed the potato rings with seaweed emulsion and watch for critters and disease. When the plants die back and turn brown, then the potato harvest will begin (probably in late June).

It appears this is working so well, I’m going to try this with sweet potatoes.

Talk to you soon!

Papa

 

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Early blight on tomatoes, potatoes, peppers and eggplant. Can it be subdued?

Alternaria solani is the fungus causing Early Blight. Spring brings the rain, wind, and insects traveling from plant to plant plus a hidden visitor of Alternaria solani spores. Overhead irrigation, tools, infected seed and working in the garden when wet also support spore dispersal and growth. Rain splashing from the soil, carry these spores to your plants.

Spores enter the plant through leaf surfaces or wounded plant material. The fungus spores can linger, producing many “seasons” of infection and take advantage of the hot, wet weather of late summer.

Early Blight is favored by warm temperatures and extended periods of leaf wetness from frequent rain, fog, or dew. Warm, humid  temperatures of 75-86 degrees increase the likelihood of infection.

Once the spores have “attacked”, infections have occurred and become the most important source of new spore production and rapid spread of the blight. Lesions generally appear quickly under warm, moist conditions on older foliage and are usually visible within 5-7 days after infection.

Early blight can develop quickly mid- to late season and is more severe when plants are stressed by poor nutrition, drought, other diseases, or pests.

What are the symptoms?

  • Dark spots will start showing on the older leaves of your tomatoes, potatoes, Bell pepper, hot pepper and eggplant.
  • These spots will look like concentric rings.
  • Tissue surrounding these brown spots will turn yellow (a yellow halo)
  • Spots enlarge becoming leathery, merge and leaves start to hang withered or fall off.
  • Younger leaves will start showing black spots as well as the stems.
  • As the leaves fall, the fruit has no shading and succumb to sunscald. This will also cause reduced fruiting as there is less leafing for photosynthesis.
  • Infected fruit have dark, sunken, leathery spots near the stem end. Both green and ripe fruit are affected.

tomato-early-blight1       tomato Early-blight

13_StemsTomato4       eblight3lg1_fruit

  • Tomatoes will rot from the stem to the inside of the fruit.
  • Tubers of the potato vine develop dark specks resulting in a corky potato.

What can be done to stop this blight?

  • Apply mulch (black plastic, straw, newspaper, biodegradable weed barrier)  to protect the plant from spore splashing from the soil onto lower leaves. Remember early blight is a soil borne disease.
  • Provide plenty of space between the plants. Good air flow will help keep the plants dry.
  • Pick off affected/infected leaves and remove them from the garden, bagged; dispose with household garbage. Burning is equally effective.
  • Wash your hands and/or gloves when you finish in the blighted area.
  • Change your clothes to reduce further spore dispersal.
  • Wash/disinfect any tools used in the blighted area.
  •  Use a biofungicide spray: Bacillus subtilis,  (Serenade® MAX) and Bacillus pumilis (Sonata®) with compost tea. Read label for application.
  •  Copper products, hydrogen peroxide, and potassium bicarbonate can be used against early blight . Read the label for application.
  • Garlic, neem oil and seaweed extract have also been shown to be effective in reducing the severity of early blight disease on tomatoes. Spray and apply as label directs.
  • Do not work in the garden when it is wet after rain, morning dew or fog.
  • Use drip irrigation as this will keep the plants dry.
  • Rotate your tomatoes, potatoes, Bell and hot peppers and eggplant every three to four years with small grains (wheat, barley, rye, oats, sorghum), corn and legumes (peanuts, peas, cowpeas, green beans, long beans, runner beans, fava beans, soybeans, Southern peas, sugar snap peas). If you are limited on space consider container and vertical gardening giving your soil time to regain its health and decrease the spore population.
  • Amend your soil with compost during late fall as it supports microorganisms that contribute to biological control in the soil.
  • Early blight survives from season to season in or on the leaves, stalk and fruit from diseased plants.  Remove diseased plants or destroy them immediately after harvest.(Bag or burn)
  • Nightshade and horsenettle  serve as alternative hosts for the disease. Remove them from your garden area.
  • blacknightshade_orig       Horse-nettle-plant1
  • Tomato stakes and cages should be disinfected (hydrogen peroxide or diluted bleach solution) and rinsed prior to storage. All dried plant material must be removed, bagged or burned.
  • Be alert to weather changes.
  • Become a plant detective. Get out to the garden daily and observe for any changes. You won’t be sorry as you are on the watch for disease. Removing leaves at the first sign of infection will slow the spread of Early Blight.
  • Do not compost any diseased plant material.
  • Do not save seed from diseased fruit as Early Blight survives within them.

Are there Early Blight “resistant” tomato varieties? More like partially resistant.

  • Mountain Pride
  • Mountain Supreme
  • Mountain Gold
  • Mountain Fresh
  • Mountain Belle
  • Mountain Fresh Plus
  • Aunt Jenny’s Purple
  • Big Rainbow
  • Black Plum
  • Juliet
  • Legend
  • Matt’s Wild Cherry
  • Old Brooks
  • Tigerella (AKA Mr. Stripey)
  • Tommy Toes

What is a good strategy for potatoes?

  • Choose resistant varieties such as long season as they are usually more resistant – Certified seed potatoes.
  • Choose a short season variety, plant early and harvest before Early Blight invades.
  • Separate your potatoes from your tomatoes to decrease cross infection.
  • Give wider spacing to access better drying and air flow.
  • Be aware of the moisture in the soil. Do not over water.

Yes, Early Blight can be subdued if you are vigilant.

Papa

Late blight on Tomatoes and Potatoes. Is there a Cure?

Late blight, which is caused by a fungus Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most destructive and contagious plant diseases directly affecting the fruit and killing the plant. (Phytophthora means ‘plant destroyer’ in Latin)

Late Blight1       Tomato LB

Late blight spreads like a wildfire. This fungus produces spores in abundance and with the help of moist wind they will travel up to 30 miles. It is imperative to destroy infected plants as soon as possible as this disease is easily spread.

This disease shows up in late summer as the hot and warm humid days may be followed by cool and moist nights with accompanying rain, fog and heavy dew. This is a indicator to the home gardener to become watchful for the signs of late blight.

What to look for:

  • Leaves will develop water soaked spots.
  • The spots will enlarge and quickly turn from brown to purple to black.
  • Shoots of the plant will turn black and eventually the plant will collapse.
  • As the plant rots there is a foul odor; a whitish mold may be present.
  • Tomatoes will show grayish water soaked spots, enlarge and turn dark. They may have additional rot, an unpleasant foul odor and be mushy.
  • Potato tubers will show purplish or brown corky spots. There may be additional rot, an unpleasant foul odor and be mushy.

Late Blight2        Tomato LB1

Potato LB1         Potato LB2

Potato LB

Can this disease be prevented?

  • Check your potatoes and tomatoes daily following cool, humid and prolonged wet weather followed by warm/hot humid days. Sign up to receive alerts (www.usablight.org) for immediate notification when late blight is confirmed near you.
  • Copper fungicides (Elemental copper as cupric oxide) can be highly effective if applied as a preventative (before infection) and with complete coverage of all plant foliar surfaces, including the undersides of leaves where the fungus typically produces spores. Follow the label and use as prescribed.
  • Neem oil is an alternative fungicide. Follow the label and use as prescribed.
  • If symptoms are found remove the plant(s) immediately in plastic sealed bags.
  • Remove the plant(s) when the leaves have dried to decrease the dispersal of spores.
  • Dispose of this diseased material in plastic sealed bags with your household trash. Burning the diseased plant material is equally effective.
  • Change your clothing and wash your hands/change your gloves before entering the garden again. (Spores from late blight could be reintroduced from your clothes, hands and gloves) Remember this is a highly contagious disease.
  • Hill your potato plants to stop spores from draining down to the tubers.
  • Some gardeners will cover their tomatoes with an old tent frame or swing set and place plastic over the frame. The frame must be higher than the planting and permit air movement as there cannot be condensation on the leaves. High tunnels have been very successful.

Are there blight resistant tomatoes?

An article in growveg.com (January 17, 2014) by Barbara Pleasant offers a list of 9 blight resistant tomato varieties offering excellent to very good resistance.

They are:

  • Defiant PHR
  • Lemon Drop
  • Matt’s Wild Cherry
  • Mountain Magic
  • Mountain Merit
  • Plum Regal
  • Mr. Stripey (AKA Tigerella)
  • Iron Lady
  • Jasper

Are there blight resistant potatoes?

  • Elba, most resistant
  •  Kennebec
  • Allegany
  • Sebago
  • Rosa
  • Defender
  • Jacqueline Lee
  • Ozette
  • Island Sunshine

Harvesting potatoes:

  • If there are symptoms as harvest approaches remove all potato foliage from the garden and wait 2 weeks before digging the tubers.
  • Wait for dry conditions to dig your potatoes.
  • Remove all potatoes from the soil. ( the spores of this fungus will overwinter in unharvested tubers, in the soil and living crop debris)
  • Check your harvested potatoes for spots and cull if spots are present. Do not store spotted (culled) potatoes with unaffected potatoes.

Harvesting tomatoes:

  • Any fruit that rot after picking should be put in a trash bag and disposed with household garbage.
  • Unaffected parts of fruit can be consumed, but fruit from affected plants should not be canned due to concern that the pH may not be sufficiently low.
  • Tomato seed is not a carrier of this disease.

A photo gallery of this disease:  http://www.hort.cornell.edu/lateblight

Cleaning the garden of all living debris, tomatoes and potatoes is essential. Burn or bag this debris for disposal. Do not compost. Again, this is a very contagious disease.

Is there a cure?

Late blight has been with us a long time. The potato famine in Ireland of 1845 was caused by late blight. As you have read this disease is highly contagious and your daily observations are necessary to spot the symptoms and act accordingly.

Papa

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